Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Optimizing stereochemistry cleanup

Optimizing cleanup of stereochemistry

A fair amount of the time spent in constructing molecules using the RDKit goes to the assignment/cleanup of stereochemistry. I did an analysis for the 2012 UGM where I found that 27% of the time spent parsing 100K drug-like molecules from the ZINC set was in the assignStereochemistry() function. The function itself is responsible for assigning R/S labels to atoms and, more importantly, removing stereochemistry flags from atoms or double bonds that shouldn't have them (where the substituents are the same).

I think the assignStereochemistry() step is important (to be sure that molecules are actually correctly specified), but it certainly wouldn't be bad to make it faster. That's the point of this exercise.

As a readily availblbe test set for this, I'm going to take the ChEMBL molecules that appeared in documents published betwen 2010 and 2012 that I used in a previous blog post: The full set here contains 234681 molecules, since I'm only interested in molecules that have stereochemistry, I narrowed the set down like this:

egrep '@|/' chembl16_2010-2012.smi > chembl16_2010-2012.chiral.smi

That gives 81030 molecules that contain at least one specified chiral center or double bond with specified stereochemistry. For the purposes of this exercise, where I don't want to wait forever, I used the first 40K of those.

As with any optimization exercise, I did this one using the profiler and a relatively simple bit of code that reads in the 40K molecules and then generates canonical smiles for them. The SMILES generation isn't actually important here, but it does provide some useful information about relative timings.

Operation Percent Time(s)
Total 100.0 30.6
Sanitize 26.0 8.0
assignStereochemistry 24.5 7.4
MolToSmiles 39.9 12.2
rankAtoms 21.1 6.4

The rankAtoms step is part of MolToSmiles.

After an embarassing amount of time pursuing avenues that led to no real improvement, I made a couple of small changes (commits and that ended up helping a fair amount:

Operation Percent Time(s)
Total 100.0 28.8
Sanitize 26.9 7.7
assignStereochemistry 20.3 5.8
MolToSmiles 42.9 12.3
rankAtoms 23.8 6.8

The rankAtoms step is part of MolToSmiles.

Stats about the dataset

  • Number of compounds considered: 40000
  • Number where stereochemistry was resolved in one pass: 38282
  • Number where dependent stereochemistry required two passes: 1712
  • Number where dependent stereochemistry required three passes: 6

Molecules where three passes were required

  • CN(C)C(=O)N[C@@H]1CC[C@@H](CN2[C@@H]3CC[C@H]2C[C@H](C3)Oc4cccc(c4)C(=O)N)CC1
  • CN(C)C(=O)N[C@@H]1CC[C@@H](CCN2[C@@H]3CC[C@H]2C[C@H](C3)Oc4cccc(c4)C(=O)N)CC1
  • CN(C)C(=O)N[C@@H]1CC[C@H](CN2[C@@H]3CC[C@H]2C[C@H](C3)Oc4cccc(c4)C(=O)N)CC1
  • CN(C)C(=O)N[C@@H]1CC[C@H](CCN2[C@@H]3CC[C@H]2C[C@H](C3)Oc4cccc(c4)C(=O)N)CC1
  • Cc1ccc(s1)C(=CCCN2C[C@@H]3[C@H](C2)[C@@H]3C(=O)O)c4ccc(C)s4
  • Cc1ccc(s1)C(=CCCN2C[C@@H]3[C@H](C2)[C@H]3C(=O)O)c4ccc(C)s4

Those all look reasonable.

No comments: